quinta-feira, 11 de março de 2010

Annoted Bibliographie - Topic 3: Cooperative learning in online environment

Having an end in my work

3) Cooperative learning in online environment:

  • Paulsen, M.F. 2003, Part One: Online Education, Teaching and Learning, Cooperative Freedom: An Online Education Theory (p. 39 – 50): this text talks about lots of things and he puts in order three theories about learning - Theories of autonomy and independence; Theories of industrialization, and Theories of interaction and communication – in the first Paulsen refers that Moore (1983) “ argues that distance education organizations should ideally give students maximum independence with regard to choice of aims, objectives, study methods, and learning activities; study pace and progression; and evaluation.”; on the second Peters’ (1988) says that “the structure of distance teaching is determined to a considerable degree by the principles of industrialization, particularly by those of rationalization, division of labor, and mass production; the teaching process is gradually restructured through increasing mechanization and mass production”, and in the third Holmberg (1988) says that “conversation-like interaction between the student on the one hand and the tutor counselor of the supporting organization administering the study on the other”. Well this means that the first theory put’s in order the communication by the computer, the second doesn’t emphasizes the computer communication but look’s to the standard student (maybe emphasizes the individualism), but the third talk’s about computer communication and the asynchronous way of learning. He also creates a theory: Cooperative Freedom, which means that student as freedom on the learning process, and this freedom is in: content, access, time, space, pace, medium (present in The hexagon of cooperative freedom). All this freedom motivates, implies and stimulates the student and conjugate the individual freedom whit the social communication. The learning mediated by computer gives individual freedom and promotes global involvement among other persons. The cooperative freedom is a theory that show us haw much we are all involve in the learning process. That why (I think) when professor Paulsen made is presentation he says “Dear Colleagues” and not “Dear students”; he puts itself in our side – we are all learners. I think that’s the essence of Cooperative Freedom. In full of conclusion, like in Paulsen’s article The Hexagon Of Cooperative Freedom: A Distance Education Theory Attuned to Computer Conferencing, “Cooperative freedom is a fabricated term. At first sight, it seems self-contradictory."Cooperative" indicates group interaction, though "freedom" implies individual autonomy. Yet, if we could develop a distance education system that combines freedom for the individual with group cooperation, we would attain a distance education system based on cooper-ative freedom.” This kind of learning is to adult’s who wants to learn but has their lives (and a little less time, place… to study).

  • http://www.google.com/books?hl=ptPT&lr=&id=t22GwVs_jEwC&oi=fnd&pg=PR6&dq=cooperative+learning+online&ots=e5Tfxl6yU2&sig=8WzXawHWVCTVwntaRWHIuls8R8#v=onepage&q=cooperative%20learning%20online&f=false (Implement Computer Supported – Cooperative Learning, David Mcconnell, published in 1994, 2nd edition 2000): this book talk’s about cooperative learning and it support that this kind of learning is used in universities. It talk’s about Computer Supported cooperative learning (CSCL). It also refers that cooperative learning is one of the older social learning and that the altruism is based on cooperation as ideology. This kind of learning is theorizes by Piaget constructivism and other learning theories. Mcconell talks about an interesting thing as the positive interrelation: promotes intergroup relation and cross-cultural relations; creates norms in group that support high achievement. Cooperative learning encourages a spirit of learning and an understanding of the nature of knowledge. When he talks about CSCL system he talk’s about the computer structure, the asynchronous and synchronous way of communicate and, it show us that CSCL is the previligious way to the cooperative learning.

  • http://www.downes.ca/ (blog de Stephan Downes) – This blog was lot’s of interesting articles, and I’m going to refer the E-Learning 2.0 article, when Downes talks about the tools that provides a practice community – and defines it: “In the world of e-learning, the closest thing to a social network is a community of practice, articulated and promoted by people such as Etienne Wenger in the 1990s. According to Wenger,” a community of practice is characterized by "a shared domain of interest" where "members interact and learn together" and "develop a shared repertoire of resources." I think that is here where is the origin of the term cooperative learning (correct me if it isn’t). He also talks about Connectivism as a learning theory and he say’s: “Taking this approach even further is George Siemens's Connectivism. "We derive our competence," writes Siemens, "from forming connections... Chaos is a new reality for knowledge workers... Unlike constructivism, which states that learners attempt to foster understanding by meaning-making tasks, chaos states that the meaning exists— the learner's challenge is to recognize the patterns which appear to be hidden. Meaning-making and forming connections between specialized communities are important activities." Readers of Douglas Rushkoff's Cyberia will recognize a similar theme as knowledge-working is no longer thought of as the gathering and accumulation of facts, but rather, the riding of waves in a dynamic environment” (E-Learning 2.0, Stephen Downes, October 17, 2005
In conclusion I can say that:
1) Cooperative learning born in Construtivism learning theory but it’s in the Connectivism (George Siemens's theory) theory that show us the really mean of cooperative – forming conections – learning.
2) Cooperative learning is Cooperative freedom because it means learn joining individual capacity whit global communication taking time for everything.
3) Cooperative freedom it’s a way to learn taking computer as a way of work, communicate, teach and learn, taking this areas as interdependent.
4) CSCL (Computer Supported cooperative learning) is the cooperative freedom way;
5) Cooperative freedom takes part of sharing objects, looking for a supportive or jointly learning (using tools like web 2.0).

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